A Multi-Systems Life Course Perspective of Economic Abuse
AbstractIntimate partner violence (IPV) against women slowly moved out of the private sphere and into the public realm in the United States in the early 1970’s. While progress has been made regarding psychological, physical, and sexual trauma related to IPV, it has been only in the last decade that attention about IPV has included an examination of the impact of economic abuse (EA). This is disturbing given that EA is one of the eight spokes on the Power and Control wheel (PCW) and many women state that they are not able to leave or get away from the abusive relationship due to financial reasons. Using a multi-systems life course (MSLC) perspective, this paper considers the importance of elevating EA as a form of IPV-related trauma. We examine EA’s differential impact among women, review current practices and policies, and conclude with implications for micro, mezzo, and macro levels of trauma-informed practice with survivors of EA.
Abramovitz, M. (1996). Regulating the lives of women: Social welfare policy form colonial times to the present. Boston: South End Press.
Adams, A. E., Sullivan, C. M., Bybee, D., & Greeson, M. R. (2008). Development of the Scale of Economic Abuse. Violence Against Women, 14(5), 563-588. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801208315529
Allstate Foundation. (2017). “Get the Facts: Statistics.” Available at http://purplepurse.com/get-the-facts/about-domestic-violence/statistics
American Association of University Women. (2016). The simple truth gender pay gap. Retrieved from https://www.aauw.org/files/2016/02/SimpleTruth_Spring2016.pdf
An, S., Yoo, J., & Nackerud, L. G. (2016). Using Game Theory to Understand Screening for Domestic Violence Under the TANF Family Violence Option. Advances in Social Work, 16(2), 338-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.18060/16671
Arizona Coalition to End Sexual and Domestic Violence. (n.d.). Economic abuse wheel. Available at http://www.azcadv.org/azcadv2014wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Economic-Abuse-Wheel.pdf
Assets for Independence Act of 1998, 42 U.S.C. 604 Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ocs/resource/afi-legislation-0
Austin, M. J., Coombs, M., & Barr, B. (2008). Community-centered clinical practice: Is the integration of micro and macro social work practice possible? Journal of Community Practice, 13(4), 9-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J125v13n04_02
Bent-Goodley, T. (2005). Culture and domestic violence: Transforming knowledge development. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 195-203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504269050
Bergen, R. K., & Barnhill, E. (2006). Marital rape: New research and directions. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Available at: http://vawnet.org/sites/default/files/materials/files/2016-09/AR_MaritalRapeRevised.pdf
Blumer, I-I. (1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. Annals of Child Development, 6, 187-249.
Brush, L. D. (2004). Battering and the poverty trap. Journal of Poverty, 8(3), 23-43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J134v08n03_02
Campbell, J., Campbell, D. W., Gary, F., Nedd, D., Price-Lea, P., Sharps, P.W., & Smith, C. (2008). African American women’s responses to intimate partner violence: An examination of cultural context. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 16(3), 277-295. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10926770801925684
Christy-McMullin, K. (2000). An analysis of the Assets for Independence Act of 1998 for abused women. Violence Against Women, 6(10), 1066-1084. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/10778010022183523
Christy-McMullin, K. (2002). Designing policies that address the relationship between woman abuse and economic resources. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24(3), 109-124.
Christy-McMullin, K., & Shobe, M. A. (2007). The role of economic resources and human capital with woman abuse. Journal of Policy Practice, 6(1), 3-26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J508v06n01_02
Christy-McMullin, K. (2011). Building the capacity of human service providers to deliver financial literacy to domestic violence survivors. Center for Financial Security, University of Wisconsin. CFS Research Brief 2011-5.5.
Coker, D. (2000). Shifting power for battered women: Law, material resources, and poor women of color. University of California Davis Law Review, 33, 1009-1055.
Corcoran, M. (1995). Rags to rags: Poverty and mobility in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 237-267. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.21.080195.001321
Dasgupta, S. D. (1998). Women’s realities: Defining violence against women by immigration, race and class. In R.K. Bergen (Ed.), Issues of intimate violence (pp. 209-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483328348.n14
Day, P. J., & Schiele, J. (2012). A new history of social welfare: Connecting core competencies (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs. (2011.). The Duluth Model Wheel gallery. Available at http://www.theduluthmodel.org/training/wheels.html
Elder, G. H. Jr. (1995).The life course paradigm: Social change and individual development. In P. Moen, G. H. Elder, & K. Luscher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 101-139). Washington: APA Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/10176-003
Fine, M., & Weis, L. (2000). Disappearing acts: The state and violence against women in the twentieth century. Signs, 25, 1139-1146. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/495534
Gjertson, L. (2011). Summary of workshop proceedings: Exploring the intersection between financial capability and domestic violence. Center for Financial Security, University of Wisconsin: Madison WI.
Gondolf, E. W., & Williams, O. J. (2001). Culturally focused batterer counseling for African American men. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 2, 283-295. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838001002004001
Hahn, S. A., & Postmus, J. L. (2014). Economic empowerment of impoverished IPV survivors: A review of best practice literature and implications for policy. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(2), 79-93. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838013511541
Haynes, K. (1998). The one hundred-year debate: Social reform versus individual treatment. Social Work, 43(6), 501-509. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.6.501
Hawkins, R. L., & Kim, E. J. (2012). The socio-economic empowerment assessment: Addressing poverty and economic distress in clients. Clinical Social Work Journal, 40, 194-202. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-011-0335-4
Johnson, M. E. (2015). Changing course in the anti-domestic violence legal movement: From safety to security. Villanova Law Review, 60, 145-201. doi: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2579639
Jorgensen, M., & Morris, P. (2010). Tribal experience with children’s accounts. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1528-1537. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.03.017
Kyriakakis, S., Dawson, B.A, & Edmond, T. (2012). Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence: Conceptualization and descriptions of abuse. Violence and Victims, 27(4), 548-562. doi: https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.27.4.548
Lindhorst, T., & Padgett, J. (2005). Disjunctures for women and frontline workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option. Social Service Review, 79(3), 405-429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/430891
McCue, M. L. (2007). Domestic violence: A reference handbook (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
McEachern, D., Van Winkle, M., & Steiner, S. (1998). Domestic violence among the Navajo: A legacy of colonization. Journal of Poverty, 2(4), 31-46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J134v02n04_03
McGrath, M. (2015). A global financial literacy test finds that just 57% of adults in the U.S. are financially literate. Forbes. Available at http://www.forbes.com/sites/maggiemcgrath/2015/11/18/in-a-global-test-of-financial-literacy-the-u-s/#140981366a16
Mickelson, K. D., & Hazlett, E. (2014). Why me? Low-income women’s poverty attributions, mental health, and social class perceptions. Sex Roles, 71, 319-332. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0414-4
Murphy-Erby, Y., Christy-McMullin, K., Stauss, K., & Schriver, J. (2010). Multi-systems life course: A new practice perspective and its application in advanced practice with racial and ethnic populations. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20(5), 1-16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10911351003751868
Murphy-Erby, Y., Jordan, S., Shobe, M., & Christy-McMullin, K. (2009). Individual development accounts and social justice. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of Oxford Roundtable, 2009(1). Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237390022_Individual_Development_Accounts_and_Social_Justice
National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence [NCDSV]. (2017). National center on domestic and sexual violence: Training, consulting, advocacy. Available at http://www.ncdsv.org/images/Teen%20P&C%20wheel%20NO%20SHADING.pdf
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence [NCADV]. (2015). Domestic violence national statistics. Available at http://ncadv.org/images/Domestic%20Violence.pdf
National Women’s Law Center. (2016). The wage gap: The who, how, why, and what to do. Washington D. C. Retrieved from https://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/The-Wage-Gap-The-Who-How-Why-and-What-to-Do.pdf
Outlaw, M. (2009). No one type of intimate partner abuse: Exploring physical and non-physical abuse among intimate partners. Journal of Family Violence, 24(4), 263-272. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9228-5
Page-Adams, D., & Sherraden, M. (1997). Asset building as a community revitalization strategy. Social Work, 42(5), 423-434. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/42.5.423
Page-Reeves, J. (2011). Commentary: The nexus of poverty, hunger, and homelessness in New Mexico. Social Justice, 38(3), 33-41.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-193, 110 Stat. 2105, codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1305.
Peterson, R. (1980). Social class, social learning and wife abuse. Social Service Review, 54, 390-406. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/643846
Postmus, J. L. (2011). Understanding financial literacy with survivors of intimate partner violence [CFS Research Brief 2011-5.2]. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b5ff/7d485cf6e6f7a2b0d80d800b8ba0c9ced404.pdf
Postmus, J. L., Plummer, S., McMahon, S., Murshid, N. S., & Kim, M. S. (2012). Understanding economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3), 411-430. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260511421669
Purtell, K., & McLoyd, V. (2013). A longitudinal investigation of employment among low-income youth: Patterns, predictors, and correlates. Youth & Society, 45(2), 243-264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X11416019
Pyles, L. (2006). Economic well-being and intimate partner violence: New findings about the informal economy. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 33(3), 101-126.
Rennison, C., & Planty, M. (2003). Non-lethal intimate partner violence: Examining race, gender, and income patterns. Violence and Victims, 18(4), 433-443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.2003.18.4.433
Renzetti, C. (1998) Violence and abuse in lesbian relationships: Theoretical and empirical issues. In R.K. Bergen (Ed.). Issues of intimate violence (pp. 117-125). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: http://dx.doi.org/104135/9781483328348.n7
Richie, B. (2000). A black feminist reflection on the antiviolence movement. Signs, 25, 1133-1137. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/495533
Richie, B., & Kanuha, V. (1993). Battered women of color in public health care systems: Racism, sexism, and violence. In B. Bair & S. E. Cayleff (Eds.), Wings of gauze: Women of color and the experience of health and illness (pp. 288-299). Detroit, MI: Wayne State University.
Sanders, C. (2011). Facilitating savings and asset ownership among domestic violence survivors. Center for Financial Security, University of Wisconsin. CFS Research Brief 2011-5.3.
Sanders, C. (2014). Savings for survivors: An Individual Development Account program for survivors of intimate-partner violence. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(3), 297-312. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2014.893950
Sanders, C. (2015). Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: A qualitative study. Violence Against Women, 21(1), 3-29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801214564167
Sanders, C. & Schnabel, M. (2008). Organizing for economic empowerment of battered women: Women’s Savings Accounts. Journal of Community Practice, 14(3), 47-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/j125v14n03_04
Schrag, R. V. (2015). Economic abuse and later material hardship: Is depression a mediator? Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 30(3), 341-351. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109914541118
Sherraden, M. (1988). Rethinking social welfare: Toward assets. Social Policy, 18(3), 37-43.
Sherraden, M. (1991). Assets and the poor: A new American welfare policy. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Sokoloff, N.J., & Dupont, I. (2005). Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender. Violence Against Women, 11(1), 38-64. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801204271476
Standard and Poor. (2015). Financial literacy in the United States. Available at https://media.mhfi.com/documents/SandP_US_FINAL.pdf
The Family Violence Option of 1996, Pub. L. 104-193, 110 Stat. 2105, codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1305.
The NW Network. (n.d.). The NW Network of Bi, Trans, Lesbian and Gay Survivors of Abuse. Available at https://static1.squarespace.com/static/566c7f0c2399a3bdabb57553/t/582b7f6e440243e4d6d05c67/1479245679835/11-Power-and-Control-Wheel-for-LGBT.pdf
Trygged, S., Hedlund, E., & Käreholt, I. (2014). Beaten and poor? A study of the long-term economic situation of women victims of severe violence. Social Work in Public Health, 29, 100-113. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2013.776320
Valandra. (2007). Reclaiming their lives and breaking free: An Afrocentric approach to recovery from prostitution. Afflia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 22(2), 195-208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109907299052
Valandra, Murphy-Erby, Y., Higgins, M., & Brown, L. (2016). African American perspectives and experiences of domestic violence in a rural community. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2016, 1-25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516669542
Violence Against Women Act of 1994, Pub. L. 103-322, 108 Stat. 1796, codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 13701- 14040.
Vitt, L. A., Anderson, C., Kent, J., Lyter, D. M., Siegenthaler, J. K., & Ward, J. (2000). Personal finance and the rush to competence: Financial literacy education in the U.S. Middleburg, VA: Institute for Socio-Financial Studies.
Weaver, T., Sanders, C., Campbell C., & Schnabel, M. (2009). Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Domestic Violence-related Financial Issues Scale (DV-FI). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(4), 569-585. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508317176
West, T. (1999). Wounds of the spirit: Black women, violence, and resistance ethics. New York: New York University Press.
Copyright (c) 2017 Kameri Christy, Dr. Valandra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).
Beginning with Volume 17 Number 2, all articles published in this journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.