Determinants of Formal Giving in Turkey

  • Ali Çarkoğlu Koç University
  • David Campbell Binghamton University
  • Selim Erdem Aytaç Koç University


This paper shares the results of a recent study about the giving of donations or time (volunteering) among citizens of Turkey.  It examines the determinants of giving in light of recent research on this topic from other countries.  We find level of education and institutional trust to be positively associated with giving, particularly to civil society organizations.  In contrast to other studies, age is not associated with giving and men give at a higher rate than women.  We compare these results with research about giving behavior elsewhere.  

Author Biographies

Ali Çarkoğlu, Koç University
Professor and Dean, College of Administrative Sciences and Economics
David Campbell, Binghamton University
Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration
Selim Erdem Aytaç, Koç University
College of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Assistant Professor


Aytaç, S. E., & Çarkoğlu, A. (2017). Ethnicity and religiosity-based prejudice in Turkey: Evidence from a survey experiment. International Political Science Review. doi:10.1177/0192512117696333

Aytaç, S. E., Çarkoğlu, A., & Ertan, G. (2017). Türkiye’de kişilerarası sosyal güven ve bireysel belirleyicileri [Interpersonal social trust in Turkey and its individual-level determinants]. ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, 44(1), 1–25.

Bekkers, R. (2003). Trust, accreditation, and philanthropy in the Netherlands. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 32(4), 596–615.

Bekkers, R., & Wiepking, P. (2011a). A literature review of empirical studies on philanthropy. Eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(3), 924–973.

Bekkers, R., & Wiepking, P. (2011b). Who gives? A literature review of predictors of charitable giving. Part one: Religion, education, age, and socialization. Voluntary Sector Review, 2(3), 337–365.

Brooks, A. (2005). Does social capital make you generous? Social Science Quarterly, 86(1), 1–15.

Brown, E., & Ferris, J. (2007). Social capital and volunteering: An analysis of the impact of social capital on individual giving and volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(1), 85–99.

Butcher Garcia-Colin, J., & Santiago S. R. (2016). Giving Mexico: Giving by Individuals. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27, 322–347.

Çarkoğlu, A., & Aytaç S. E. (2016). Individual giving and philanthropy in Turkey. TÜSEV. Retrieved from

Charities Aid Foundation. (2015). CAF World Giving Index. Retrieved from

Einolf, C. (2016). The social origins of the nonprofit sector and charitable giving. In F. Handy & P. Wiepking (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy (pp. 509–529). London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

Everatt, D., Habib, A., Maharaj, B., & Nyar, A. (2005). Patterns of giving in South Africa. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 16(3), 275–291.

Okten, C., & Osili, U. O. (2004). Contributions in heterogeneous communities: Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of Population Economics, 17, 603–626.

Osella, F., Stirrat, R., & Widger, T. (2015). Charity, philanthropy and development in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In B. Morvaridi (Ed.), New philanthropy and social justice: Debating the conceptual and policy discourse (pp. 137–156). Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

Osili, U., Ackerman, J., Bergdoll, J., Garcia, S., Li, Y., Kane, A., & Roll, A. (2016). Giving in Puerto Rico. A collaboration between the Flamboyan Foundation, Kinesis Foundation and the Lilly School of Philanthropy.

Park, T. K., & Park, S. B. (2004. An economic study on charitable giving of individuals in Korea: Some new findings from 2002 survey data. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference of the International Society for Third-Sector Research, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Salamon, L. (2012). America’s nonprofit sector: A primer (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Foundation Center.

Salamon, L., Sokowski, S., Haddock, M., & Tice, H. (2013). The state of global civil society and volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook. Johns Hopkins University Center for Civil Studies, Comparative Nonprofit Working Paper No. 49.

Taniguchi, H., & Marshall, G. (2014). The effects of social and trust and institutional trust on formal volunteering and charitable giving in Japan.

VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25, 150–175.

Wiepking, P., & Bekkers, R. (2012). Who gives? A literature review of predictors of charitable giving. Part two: Gender, family composition and income. Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 3(2), 217–245.

Wiepking, P., & Handy, F. (Eds.). (2015). The Palgrave handbook of global philanthropy. London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

Wang, L., & Graddy, E. (2008). Social capital, volunteering and charitable giving. Voluntas, 19(1), 23–48.

Wu, S.-Y., Huang, J.-T., & Kao, A.-P. (2004). An analysis of the peer effects in charitable giving: The case of Taiwan. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 25(4), 483–505.