The Butterfly Effect? Title IX and the USWNT as Catalysts for Global Equal Pay


  • Sarah Carrick Manchester Law School
  • Alex Culvin University of Salford
  • Ali Bowes Nottingham Trent University



Title IX, women in sports, equal pay, soccer, USWNT


It is commonly believed that Title IX has had one of the greatest impacts on women and girl’s involvement in sport in the United States and beyond. In 2021, 50 years on from its inception, the development of women’s sport and women’s opportunity within the sporting sphere has increased dramatically. It is doubtless that Title IX has increased participation opportunities and “the question is no longer, ‘can women play?’ The critical question is ‘at what level?’ That’s the 21st century question.”

Author Biographies

Sarah Carrick, Manchester Law School

Sarah Carrick, PhD, is a lecturer at Manchester Law School. Her research interests include sports law, intellectual property and tax law.

Alex Culvin, University of Salford

Alex Culvin, PhD, is a senior lecturer in sports business at the University of Salford. Her research interests include elite sport, gender, work and business.

Ali Bowes, Nottingham Trent University

Ali Bowes, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the sociology of sport at Nottingham Trent University. Her research interests include the professionalism of women’s sport and the sociology of sport and gender.






Original Research