Active Shooter Preparedness: Perceptions of NCAA Division I Athletic Directors and Campus Police Chiefs


  • Jeffrey Curto Hiram College
  • Andrew Goldsmith Colorado State University
  • John Miller University of North Florida
  • Michael S. Carroll Troy University
  • Christina Martin Troy University



active shooter, campus police, athletic directors, safety plan, risk management, vested interest theory


Thousands of fans descend onto college campuses every Saturday during the fall to watch National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Power 5 and Group of 5 college football games. Power 5 is used to describe five of ten athletic conferences (ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and the SEC) which are considered the most prominent and highest earning athletic conferences in college football whose teams compete in the NCAA Division 1 Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS).  Group of 5 is an assembly of five conferences that also compete in NCAA Division I FBS.  Group of 5 college football teams often compete against Power 5 and Independent teams during the regular season and bowl games (Vannini, 2022). The largest stadium seating capacity Group of 5 schools is around 40,000 people compared to the Power 5 stadiums, 10 of which seat at least 90,000 people (Chiusano, 2022). While the seating capacity at Group of 5 schools is not as great as Power 5 institutions it still represents a significant population (Vannini, 2022).

Author Biographies

Jeffrey Curto, Hiram College

Jeffrey Curto, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Sport Management at Hiram College. His research interests include risk management, sport security management, coaching and sport and disabilities.

Andrew Goldsmith, Colorado State University

Andrew Goldsmith, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at Colorado State University. His research interests include ethical decision making, whistleblowing and organizational behavior.

John Miller, University of North Florida

John Miller, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Leadership at the University of North Florida. His research interests include legal issues in sport and recreation, risk and security management, professional student development and preparation and student retention.

Michael S. Carroll, Troy University

Michael S. Carroll, PhD, is a professor in the School of Hospitality, Sport & Tourism at Troy Uni-versity. His research interests include legal issues in sport, risk management, and disability sport.

Christina Martin, Troy University

Christina Martin, PhD, is a professor and the Director of the School of Hospitality, Sport & Tourism at Troy University. Her research interests include sport marketing and communication, legal aspects of sport and sport management pedagogy.






Original Research