Factors Affecting Leaders’ Adoption of Innovation:

An Analysis of High School Athletic Directors and Digital Ticketing


  • Armin Marquez Impact Infinity LLC
  • Beth A. Cianfrone Georgia State University
  • Timothy Kellison Georgia State University




innovation, ticketing, technology adoption, Diffusion-of-Innovation Theory


This study's focus is to determine why some leaders adopt an innovation, while others do not, through the case of high school athletic directors' digital ticket adoption. We explore the process through which sport managers evaluate an innovation as the best course of action. The purpose of this study was to identify critical factors influencing high school athletic directors' decisions to adopt digital ticketing as the best strategy for securing revenue and serving their event attendees. High school athletic directors (N = 628) completed an online survey measuring the effects that leaders' prior conditions and perceived characteristics of the innovation (i.e., independent variables) have on their decision to adopt or reject the technology (i.e., dependent variable). From a theoretical perspective, we extend the conceptual model proposed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, including two constructs specific to the situation considered (i.e., trust and cost). From a managerial standpoint, there appears to be a need to educate athletic directors on the free digital ticketing options available and its ease-of-use. Future research should explore the athletic directors' decision-making process across a more extensive timeline through a longitudinal study.

Author Biographies

Armin Marquez, Impact Infinity LLC

Armin Marquez, PhD, is Chief of Sport Technology at Impact Infinity LLC. His research interests include consumer behavior, marketing, and sport-for-development.

Beth A. Cianfrone, Georgia State University

Beth A. Cianfrone, PhD, is a professor and program coordinator of the sport administration MS program and co-director of the Center for Sport and Urban Policy in the Department of Kinesiology and Health at Georgia State University.

Timothy Kellison, Georgia State University

Timothy Kellison, PhD, is an associate professor of sport administration and director of the Center for Sport and Urban Policy in the Department of Kinesiology and Health at Georgia State University.


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