An Exploratory Model of ESL Program Leadership
This study researched the preparedness of English as a Second Language (ESL) directors in school corporations in Indiana to determine their background experiences, awareness of second language acquisition research, levels of qualification, attitudes towards English learners (ELs), efficacy for leading ESL programs, and to gain an understanding of how to provide guidance and support to this group of individuals. Furthermore, the study investigated relationships between these factors to gain insight into how they impact each other and program implementation. The study endeavored to provide useful information towards policy making and support of ESL leaders. An exploratory model of ESL program leadership, developed by the researcher, concluded that when ESL leaders are certified and bring experience of working with ELs to their positions, it is more likely that their programs will be successfully implemented. Finally, the interplay of variables showed that these directors’ levels of knowledge of second language acquisition principles and efficacy for leading the ESL program had highly significant effects on attitude, program implementation and each other. The implications of this study include directions for policy, training programs, and further research.
Boyle, A, Taylor, J, Hurlburt, S & Soga, K. (2010). Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. American Institutes for Research.
Byrnes, D., & Kiger, G. & Manning, L. (1996). Social psychological correlates of teachers’ language attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26 (5), 455-467.
Byrnes, D., & Kiger, G. & Manning, L. (1997). Teachers’ attitudes about language diversity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, (6), 637-644.
Fix, M. & Passel, J. (2003, January 28-29). U.S. immigration – trends and implications for schools. National Association for Bilingual Education NCLB Implementation Institute. New Orleans, LA. The Urban Institute.
Hamayan, E. & Freeman, R. (2006). English language learners at school: A guide for administrators. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing.
Indiana Department of Education Compass (2012-13) State of Indiana ISTEP+ selected year detail. Retrieved on February 25, 2014 from http://compass.doe.in.gov/dashboard/enrollment.aspx?type=state
Indiana Department of Education, Indiana Accountability System for Academic Progress: Graduation Rates 2009. Retrieved on July 20, 2010 from http://www.doe.in.gov/gradrate/
Indiana State Board of Education (2012) Teacher Training and Licensing. Title 511, Article 10.1. Retrieved from http://www.doe.in.gov/sites/default/files/sboe/proposed-teacher-licensing-rule.pdf
Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974)
Leithwood, K, Louis, K.S., et. al. (2004). How leadership influences student learning. New York: The Wallace Foundation.
Leithwood, K & Riehl, C. (2003). What we know about successful school leadership. UK: National College for School Leadership.
Maxwell, L. (2013, April 24). California Neglecting thousands of English-Learners, Lawsuit Claims. Education Week. Retrieved February 25, 2014 from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/learning-the-language/2013/04/california_failing_to_educate_.html
Milner, H.R. (2013). Policy Reforms and De-professionalization of Teaching. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved [date] from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/policy-reforms-deprofessionalization.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_ell.asp#info.asp
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 115, Stat. 1425
Pierre, V. (2009). Leadership Practices in Diverse Elementary School Communities: Reflections of Ten Principals Regarding the Literacy Learning of English Language Learning Students. University of Toronto.
Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of error: The hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools. USA: Random House LLC.
Ryan, J. (2003). Leading diverse schools. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Smith, J.S. & Mungro, J.L. (2009). The evaluation of Anderson
University School of Education English as a New Language Program and Professional Development Academy: Spring 2009. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis: The Center for Urban and Multicultural Education.
Tellez, K & Waxman, H.C. (eds.). (2006). Preparing quality educators for English language learners. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz and Washington, DC: Center on Research, Diversity & Excellence.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2005, 11 November). Cultivating Principals’ Sense of Efficacy: Supports That Matter. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the University Council for Educational Administration, Nashville, TN
Waters, T., Marzano, R., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership ™: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. Denver, CO: McREL.
U.S. Department of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education (2011). ESEA Flexibility Request. Retrieved February 25, 2014 from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/eseaflex/approved-requests/in.pdf.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey.” 2009-10 version 1a.
U.S. Government Accountability Office (July, 2009). Teacher Preparation: Multiple Federal Education Offices Support Teacher Preparation for Instructing Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners, but Systematic Departmentwide Coordination Could Enhance This Assistance. Washington, D.C.