Helping Community Partners Build Capacity within Integrated Behavioral Health
A Call to Action for Social Work Education
Keywords:Integrated behavioral health, training needs, social work, interprofessional team
Social workers are recent additions to integrated health care teams; therefore, there is emerging literature about the work experiences and training needs of social workers in integrated settings. After receiving a Health Resources Services Administration-Behavioral Health Workforce Education and Training (HRSA-BHWET) integrated behavioral health (IBH) grant, our social work program conducted a survey among our social work field education sites to determine training needs. Results of the needs assessment revealed that a lack of clarity exists about what is meant by integrated behavioral health as well as ways to measure and interpret levels of integration within social work field education sites. Barriers to collaboration and areas of needed training revealed gaps in knowledge and workforce readiness for providing integrated care. Recommendations include using a bidirectional level of integration conceptual framework to support greater participation of social workers and social service agencies in integrated care, in addition to specific curricular and continuing education training opportunities. Social work educators are afforded a unique opportunity to support our field education partners in reviewing and enhancing their systems of care as they continue to train future social workers.
Andrews, C. M., Darnell, J. S., McBride, T. D., & Gehlert, S. (2013). Social work and implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Health & Social Work, 38(2), 67-71. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlt002
Beronio, K., Po, R., Skopec, L., & Glied, S. (2013). Affordable Care Act expands mental health and substance use disorder benefits and federal parity protections for 62 million Americans. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/affordable-care-act-expands-mental-health-and-substance-use-disorder-benefits-and-federal-parity-protections-62-million-americans
Berwick D., Nolan T., & Whittington J. (2008). The triple aim: Care, health, and cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759-769. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.759
Bodenheimer, T., & Sinsky, C. (2014). From triple to quadruple aim: Care of the patient requires care of the provider. The Annals of Family Medicine, 12(6), 573-576. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1713
Brandt, B., Lutfiyya, M. N., King, J. A., & Chioreso, C. (2014). A scoping review of interprofessional collaborative practice and education using the lens of the Triple Aim. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(5), 393-399. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2014.906391
Compton-Phillips, A., & Mohta, N. S. (2018). Care redesign survey: It’s time to treat physical and mental health with equal intent. New England Journal of Medicine Insights Report. https://catalyst.nejm.org/time-treat-mental-and-behavioral-health-equal-intent/
Council on Social Work Education [CSWE]. (2015). Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Author. https://www.cswe.org/getattachment/Accreditation/Accreditation-Process/2015-EPAS/2015EPAS_Web_FINAL.pdf.aspx
CSWE. (2017). 2017 statistics on social work education in the United States: Summary of the CSWE Annual Survey of Social Work Programs. https://www.cswe.org/Research-Statistics/Research-Briefs-and-Publications/CSWE_2017_annual_survey_report-FINAL.aspx
Crowley, R., & Kirschner, N. (2015). The integration of care for mental health, substance abuse, and other behavioral health conditions into primary care: executive summary of an American College of Physicians Position Paper. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(4), 298-299. https://doi.org/10.7326/m15-0510
Foster, R., & Clark, J. M. (2015). Moderating the stereotypical views of health and social care students: the role of interprofessional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(1), 1468-9567. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2014.936059
Fraher, E., Richman, E., Zerden, L., & Lomabardi, B. (2018). Social work student and practitioner roles in integrated care settings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 54(6), s281-s289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.01.046
Fraser, M. W., Lombardi, B. M., Wu, S., Zerden, L. D., Richman, E. L., & Fraher, E. P. (2018). Integrated primary care and social work: A systematic review. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 9, 175-215. https://doi.org/10.1086/697567
Gertner, A., Rotter, J., & Cruden, G. (2018). Effects of mental health parity and addiction equity act on specialty outpatient behavioral health spending and utilization. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 21(3), 91-103.
Great Britain Department of Health. (1989). Caring for people: Community care in the next decade and beyond. H.M.S.O.
Heath, B., Wise Romero, P., & Reynolds, K. A. (2013). Standard framework for levels of integrated healthcare. Washington, DC: SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions. https://www.integration.samhsa.gov/integrated-care-models/A_Standard_Framework_for_Levels_of_Integrated_Healthcare.pdf
Heisler, E. (2018). The mental health workforce: A primer. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43255.pdf
Horevitz, E., & Manoleas, P. (2013). Professional competencies and training needs of professional social workers in integrated behavioral health in primary care. Social Work in Health Care, 52(8), 752-787. https://doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2013.791362
Mattison, D., Weaver, A., Zebrack, B., Fischer, D., & Dubin, L. (2017). Educating social workers for practice in integrated health care: A model implemented in a graduate social work program. Journal of Social Work Education, 53(sup1), S72-S86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2017.1288594
Mauer, B., & Jarvis, D. (2010). The business case for bidirectional integrated care: Mental health and substance use services in primary care settings and primary care services in specialty mental health and substance use settings. Integration Policy Initiative. http://www.ibhpartners.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Business_Case_for_Integration_6-10-Mauer.pdf
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019). Integrating social care into the delivery of health care: Moving upstream to improve the nation's health. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25467
Nester, J. (2016). The importance of interprofessional practice and education in the era of accountable care. North Carolina Medical Journal, 77(2), 128-132. https://doi.org/10.18043/ncm.77.2.128
Peek, C. J., & the National Integration Academy Council. (2013). Lexicon for behavioral health and primary care integration: Concepts and definitions developed by expert consensus. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://integrationacademy.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/Lexicon.pdf
Putney, J. M., Sankar, S., Harriman, K. K., O’Brien, K. H. M., Robinson, D. S., & Hecker, S. (2017). An innovative behavioral health workforce initiative: Keeping pace with an emerging model of care. Journal of Social Work Education, 53(sup1), S5-S16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2017.1326329
Rishel, C., & Hartnett, H. (2018). Innovations in field education to improve integrated care for young people and their families. Field Scholar, 8(2), 1-17.
Royse, D., & Badger, K. (2015). Needs assessment planning: Starting where you are. Australian Social Work, 68(3), 364-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407x.2015.1035661
Ruth, B., & Marshall, J. W. (2017). A history of social work in public health. American Journal of Public Health, 107, S236-S242. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2017.304005
SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions. (n.d.). Sustaining integrated behavioral health services: A step-by-step guide Part II. https://integration.samhsa.gov/about-us/integration-edge/sustaining-integrated-behavioral-health-services-pt-2
Sankar, S. (2014). Interprofessional education and social work. Conversations, 4(1), 1-13.
Smith-Osborne, A., & Daniel, K. (2017). Concurrent infusion of integrated behavioral health practice into social work field and classroom instruction. Journal of Social Work Education, 53(sup1), S17-S26. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2017.1290564
Stanhope, V., & Straussner, S. L. A. (Eds.). (2018). Interprofessional practice. Social Work and Integrated Health Care. (pp. 237-250). Oxford University Press.
Stanhope, V., Videka, L., Thorning, H., & McKay, M. (2015). Moving toward integrated health: An opportunity for social work. Social Work in Health Care, 54(5), 383-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2015.1025122
Suppes, M., & Wells, C. C. (2018). The social work experience (7th ed.). Pearson.
The King’s Fund. (2017). Social care: What’s in a name? https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/blog/2017/05/social-care-whats-name
Vourlekis, B., Edinburg, G., & Knee, R. (1998). The rise of social work in public mental health through aftercare of people with serious mental illness. Social Work, 43(6), 567- 575. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.6.567
Zerden, L. D. S., Jones, A., Brigham, R., Kanfer, M., & Zomorodi, M. (2017). Infusing integrated behavioral health in an MSW program: Curricula, field, and interprofessional educational activities. Journal of Social Work Education, 53(sup1), S59-S71. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2017.1288595
Zerden, L. D. S., Kanfer, M., Palmer, M. T., Jones, A., & Brigham, R. (2018). Recruiting, maintaining, and sustaining integrated behavioral health sites for field education. The Field Educator, 8.2, 1-17. http://fieldeducator.simmons.edu/article/innovations-in-field-education-to-improve-integrated-care-for-young-people-and-their-families/
Zerden, L. D. S., Lombardi, B. M., Fraser, M., Jones, A., & Garcia Rico, Y. (2018). Social work: Integral to interprofessional education and integrated practice. Journal of Interprofessional Education and Practice, 10, 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xjep.2017.12.011
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).