Introducing BSW Students to Social Work Supervision Prior to Field
A BSW-MSW Student Partnership
Keywords:Supervision, Supervisee, BSW, mixed methods, training, experiential learning
Little empirical information exists about how social work students are prepared to utilize supervision in practice. This study describes an experiential exercise designed to introduce BSW students to social work supervision prior to their field experience. MSW students enrolled in a supervision practice course provided mentored supervision to 42 BSW students in an introductory skills course. The skills course involved a progressive role-play that spanned the whole semester. Mixed methods were used to investigate BSW student perceptions of the exercise. According to survey data, BSW students reported a strong working alliance with MSW students and high satisfaction with the supervision they received. Qualitative data revealed two overarching categories of students: 1) students who reported benefiting from the exercise, and 2) students who reported mixed benefits or no benefits. Students who understood the role of the supervisor were also more likely to reported that they benefited from the exercise. Students who were unclear about the role of the supervisor reported mixed or no benefits of the exercise. Recommendations for social work educators relate to the need for educators to provide information on the use of supervision for BSW students, the necessity for guiding student reflections as part of the supervision exercises, and considering the developmental levels of students when crafting educational interventions.
Anastas, J. W. (2010). Teaching in social work: An educators’ guide to theory and practice. NY: Columbia University Press.
Bahrick, A. S. (1990). Role induction for counselor trainees: Effects on the supervisory working alliance. Available from Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 1484B. (University Microfilms N. 1490-1414, 1392, University Microfilms N. 90-14, 392).
Bennett, S., & Deal, K. H. (2012). Supervision training: What we know and what we need to know. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 82(2-3), 195-215.
Bogo, M. (2010). Achieving competence in social work through field education (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Bordin, E. S. (1983). A working alliance based model of supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 11(1), 35-42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000083111007
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Council on Social Work Education [CSWE]. (2015). Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS). Retrieved June 27, 2017, from https://cswe.org/Accreditation/Standards-and-Policies/2015-EPAS
Cyr, J. (2016). The pitfalls and promise of focus groups as a data collection method. Sociological Methods & Research, 45(2), 231-259.
Davys, A. M., & Beddoe, L. (2009). The reflective learning model: Supervision of social work students. Social Work Education, 28(8), 919-933.
Deal, K. H., Bennett, S., Mohr, J., & Hwang, J. (2011). Effects of field instructor training on student competencies and the supervisory alliance. Research on Social Work Practice, 21(6), 712-726. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511410577
DePue, M. K., Lambie, G. W., Liu, R., & Gonzalez, J. (2016). Investigating supervisory relationships and therapeutic alliances using structural equation modeling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 55(4), 263-277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12053
Ellis, M. V., Berger, L., Hanus, A. E., & Ayala, E. E. (2014). Inadequate and harmful clinical supervision: Testing a revised framework and assessing occurrence. Counseling Psychologist, 42(4), 434-472.
Everett, J. E., Miehls, D., DuBois, C., & Garran, A. M. (2011). The developmental model of supervision as reflected in the experiences of field supervisors and graduate students. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 31(3), 250-264.
Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80-92.
Fisher, A., Simmons, C., & Allen, S. (2016). An experiential approach to clinical supervision training: A mixed-methods evaluation of effectiveness. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 36(5), 460-476.
Hair, H. J. (2013). The purpose and duration of supervision, and the training and discipline of supervisors: What social workers say they need to provide effective services. British Journal of Social Work, 43(8), 1562-1588.
Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48(1), 9-16.
Kadushin, A., & Harkness, D. (2014). Supervision in social work. NY: Columbia University Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.7312/kadu15176
Kanno, H., & Koeske, G. F. (2010). MSW students’ satisfaction with their field placement: The role of preparedness and supervision quality. Journal of Social Work Education, 46(1), 23-38. doi: https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2010.200800066
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning : Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall.
Ladany, N., Hill, C. E., Corbett, M. M., & Nutt, E. A. (1996). Nature, extent, and importance of what psychotherapy trainees do not disclose to their supervisors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1), 10-24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124
Ladany, N., & Lehrman-Waterman, D. E. (1999). The content and frequency of supervisor self-disclosures and their relationship to supervisor style and the supervisory working alliance. Counselor Education & Supervision, 38(3), 143-160. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.1999.tb00567.x
Lee, J., Weaver, C., & Hrostowski, S. (2011). Psychological empowerment and child welfare worker outcomes: A path analysis. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40(6), 479-497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-011-9145-7
Lee, M., & Fortune, A. E. (2013). Do we need more “doing” activities or “thinking” activities in the field practicum? Journal of Social Work Education, 49(4), 646-660. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2013.812851
Litvack, A., Mishna, F., & Bogo, M. (2010). Emotional reactions of students in field education: An exploratory study. Journal of Social Work Education, 46(2), 227-243. doi: https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2010.200900007
Lu, Y. E., Dane, B., & Gellman, A. (2005). An experiential model. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 25(3-4), 89-103. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J067v25n03_06
McNamara, M. L., Kangos, K. A., Corp, D. A., & Ellis, M. V. (2017). Narratives of harmful clinical supervision: Synthesis and recommendations. Clinical Supervisor, 36(1), 124-144. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2017.1298488
Miehls, D., Everett, J., Segal, C., & du Bois, C. (2013). MSW students’ views of supervision: Factors contributing to satisfactory field experiences. Clinical Supervisor, 32(1), 128-146. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2013.782458
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
Moorhouse, L., Hay, K., & O’Donoghue, K. (2014). Listening to student experiences of supervision. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 26(4), 37-52.
Mor Barak, M. E., Travis, D. J., Pyun, H., & Xie, B. (2009). The impact of supervision on worker outcomes: A meta‐analysis. Social Service Review, 83(1), 3-32.
Omori, M., & Feldhaus, H. (2015). Who does a better job? Work quality and quantity comparison between student volunteers and students who get extra credit. College Student Journal, 49(1), 17-22.
Pugh, G. L. (2014). Revisiting the pink triangle exercise: An exploration of experiential learning in graduate social work education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 34(1), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841233.2013.863264
QSR International. (2015). NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Cambridge: Author.
Renner, L. M., Porter, R. L., & Preister, S. (2009). Improving the retention of child welfare workers by strengthening skills and increasing support for supervisors. Child Welfare, 88(5), 109-127.
Rickles, N. (2010). Viewpoints: Student participants in faculty educational research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(5), 1.
Saldaña, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sharp, E. C., Pelletier, L. G., & Lévesque, C. (2006). The double-edged sword of rewards for participation in psychology experiments. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38(3), 269-277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/cjbs2006014
Shulman, L. (2010). Interactional supervision (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: NASW Press.
Simmons, C., & Fisher, A, (2016). Promoting cognitive development through field education. Journal of Social Work Education, 52(4), 462-472.
Sussman, T., Bailey, S., Richardson, K. B., & Granner, F. (2014). How field instructors judge BSW student readiness for entry-level practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 50(1), 84-100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2014.856233
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237-246.
Williamson, S., Hostetter, C., Byers, K., & Huggins, P. (2010). I found myself at this practicum: Student reflections on field education. Advances in Social Work, 11(2), 235-247.
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).