Supporting Recruitment and Retention of Young African-American and Hispanic Fathers in Community-Based Parenting Interventions Research
Keywords:Fathers, community-based research, recruitment, parenting
Few studies to date have provided strategies for maintaining low rates of attrition when conducting longitudinal, epidemiological, or community-based research with young, minority, urban fathers. This paper highlights lessons learned from a 5-year randomized controlled trial of a fatherhood intervention that designed and implemented state-of-the-art and culturally relevant recruitment and retention methods with 348 young fathers ages 15 to 25. Qualitative findings are drawn from interviews with fathers who had been enrolled in the fatherhood intervention (n=10). While traditional recruitment and retention methods, such as incentives, were employed in this study, non-traditional methods were used as well, such as intensive community outreach, staff relationship development, recruiting specialists, and flexible contact methods. These methods were found to be helpful to young fathers in the study. Future research should incorporate, and further study, such non-traditional methods for recruiting young, minority, urban fathers into studies of parenting programs, including randomized control trials, to improve services for this underserved population.
Aggleton, P., & Campbell, C. (2000). Working with young people— towards an agenda for sexual health. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 15, 283-296. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14681990050109863
Anderson, E. A., Kohler, J. K., & Letiecq, B. L. (2002). Low-income fathers and "responsible fatherhood" programs: A qualitative investigation of participants' experiences. Family Relations, 51(2), 148-155. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00148.x
Mogro-Wilson, C., Drake, A., Coman, E., Sanghavi, T., Martin-Peele, M., & Fifield, J. (2018). Increasing condom usage for African American and Hispanic young fathers in a community based intervention. Ethnicity and Health. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1427704
Mogro-Wilson, C., & Fifield, J. (2018). Engaging young minority fathers in research: Basic needs, psychological needs, culture, and therapeutic alliance. American Journal of Public Health, 108(S1), S15-16.
Bailey, J., Bieniasz, M., Kmak, D., Brenner, D., & Rufﬁn, M. (2004). Recruitment and retention of economically underserved women to a cervical cancer prevention trial. Applied Nursing Research, 17, 55-60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2003.12.002
Becker, D., Hogue, A., & Liddle, H. A. (2002). Methods of engagement in family-based preventive intervention. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 19(2), 163-179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014550507467
Bookchin, M. (2005). The ecology of freedom: The emergence and dissolution of hierarchy. Oakland, CA: AK Press.
Bronte-Tinkew, J., Burkhauser, M., & Metz, A. (2007). What works in fatherhood programs? Ten lessons from evidence-based practice. Gaithersburg, MD: National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse.
Burrus, B. B. (2018). Decline in adolescent pregnancy in the United States: A success not shared by all. American Journal of Public Health, 108(S1), S5-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304273
Buston, K., Parkes, A., Thomson, H., Wight, D., & Fenton, C. (2012). Parenting interventions for male young offenders: A review of the evidence on what works. Journal of Adolescence, 35(3), 731-742. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.10.007
Caldwell, C. H., Bell, L., Brooks, C. L., Ward, J. D., & Jennings, C. (2011). Engaging nonresident African American fathers in intervention research: What practitioners should know about parental monitoring in nonresident families. Research on Social Work Practice, 21(3), 298-307. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731510382923
Calvo, R., Ortiz, L., Padilla, Y., Waters, M., Lubben, J., Egmont, W.,...Villa, P. (2016). Achieving equal opportunity and justice: The integration of Latina/o immigrants into American society. American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare: Grand Challenges of Social Work Initiative. Retrieved from http://aaswsw.org/grand-challenges-initiative/12-challenges/achieve-equal-opportunity-and-justice/
Carlson, M. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2011). Low-income fathers' influence on children. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social, 635(1), 95-116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716210393853
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Vital signs: Repeat births among fathers in the United States, 2007-2010. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6213a4.htm
Chacon, J., Patterson, K., Brown, C., & Bavolek, S. (2003). 24/7 Dad A.M.: Fathering handbook. Germantown, MD: National Fatherhood Initiative.
Corbie-Smith, G., Thomas, S. B., & St. George, D. M. (2002). Distrust, race, and research. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(21), 2458-2463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.162.21.2458
Corcoran, J., & Pillai, V. K. (2007). Effectiveness of secondary pregnancy prevention programs: A meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 17(1), 5-18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731506291583
Cowan, P. A., Cowan, C. P., Pruett, M. K., Pruett, K. D., & Wong, J. (2009). Promoting fathers' engagement with children: Preventative interventions for low-income families. Journal of Marriage & Family, 71, 663-679. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00625.x
Dubowitz, H., Black, M., Cox, C., Kerr, M., Litrownik, A., Radhakrishna, A.,... Runyan, D. K. (2001). Father involvement and children's functioning at age 6 years: A multisite study. Child Maltreatment, 6(4), 300-309. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559501006004003
Farr, M., & Pavlicko, M. A. (2006). Young person’s guide to getting and keeping a good job. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Publishing.
Fletcher, R., Freeman, E., & Matthey, S. (2011). The impact of behavioural parent training on fathers' parenting: A meta-analysis of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Fathering, 9, 291-312. doi: https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0903.291
Frank, T. J., Keown, L. J., & Sanders, M. R. (2015). Enhancing father engagement and interparental teamwork in an evidence-based parenting intervention: A randomized-controlled trial of outcomes and processes. Behavior Therapy, 46, 749-763. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.05.008
Froelicher, E., Miller, N., Buzaitis, A., Pfenninger, P., Misuraco, A., & Jordan, S. (2003). The enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease trial: Strategies and techniques for enhancing retention of patients with acute myocardial infarction and depression or social isolation. Journal of Cardiopulmanary Rehabilitation, 23(4), 269-280. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00008483-200307000-00004
Gordon, D. M., Hunter, B., Woods, L. N., Tinney, B., Bostic, B., Malone, S.,...Smith, A. (2012). Increasing outreach, connection, and services to low-income, non-custodial fathers: How did we get here and what do we know. Fathering, 10(1), 101-111. doi: https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.1001.101
Gordon, J. A., Shaffer, D. W., Raemer, D. B., Pawlowski, J., Hurford, W. E., & Cooper, J. B. (2006). A randomized controlled trial of simulation-based teaching versus traditional instruction in medicine: A pilot study among clinical medical students. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11, 33-39. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-004-7346-7
Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Osterman, M. J. K. (2016). Births: Preliminary data for 2015. National Vital Statistics Report, 65(3), 1-15.
Horn, W. (2003). Is it working? Early evaluations of fatherhood renewal programs. In O. Clayton, R. B. Mincy, & D. Blankenhorn (Eds.), Black fathers in contemporary society: Strengths, weaknesses, and strategies for change (pp. 138-152). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Jeynes, W. H. (2015). A meta-analysis: The relationship between father involvement and student academic achievement, Urban Education, 50(4), 387-423. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085914525789
Katz, K., El-Mohandes, P., Johnson, D., Jarrett, P., Rose, A., & Cober, M. (2001). Retention of low income mothers in a parenting intervention study. Journal of Community Health, 26, 203-218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010373113060
Khurana, A., & Gavazzi, S. M. (2011). Juvenile delinquency and adolescent fatherhood. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(5), 756-770. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X10372109
Lewin, A., Mitchell, S. J., Burrell, L., Beers, L. S. A., & Duggan, A. K. (2011). Patterns and predictors of involvement among fathers of children born to adolescent mothers. Journal of Family Social Work, 14(4), 335-353. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10522158.2011.587178
Lundahl, B. W., Tollefson, D., Risser, H., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2004). A meta-analysis of father involvement in parent training. Research on Social Work Practice, 18(2), 97-106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731507309828
Martinez, G. M., Chandra, A., Abma, J. C., Jones, J., & Mosher, W. D. (2006). Fertility, contraception, and fatherhood: Data on men and women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23, 1-142. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_026.pdf
McBride, B. A., & Lutz, M. M. (2004). Intervention: Changing the nature and extent of father involvement. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.),The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 664-475). New York: Wiley.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Milkie, M. A., & Denny, K. E. (2014). Changes in the cultural model of father involvement descriptions of benefits to fathers, children, and mothers in parents' magazine, 1926-2006. Journal of Family Issues, 35(2), 223-253. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X12462566
Padgett, D. (2008). Qualitative methods in social work research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Palm, G., & Fagan, J. (2008). Father involvement in early childhood programs: Review of the literature. Early Childhood Development and Care, 178(7-8), 745-759. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430802352137
Parra-Medina, D., D’antonio, A., Smith, S., Levin, S., Kirkner, G., & Mayer-Davis, E. (2004). Successful recruitment and retention strategies for a randomized weight management trial for people with diabetes living in rural medically underserved counties of South Carolina: The POWER study. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 104, 70-75. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.10.014
Robinson, K. A., Dennison, C. R., Wayman, D. M., Pronovost, P. J., & Needham, D. M. (2007). Systematic review identiﬁes number of strategies important for retaining study participants. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60(8), 757-757. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.11.023
Smith, T. K., Duggan, A., Bair-Merritt, M. H., & Cox, G. (2012). Systematic review of fathers’ involvement in programmes for the primary prevention of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Review, 21(4), 237-254. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2195
Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (2000). Research on family engagement in preventive intervention: Toward improved use of scientific findings in primary prevention practice. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 267-284. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007039421026
Stahlschmidt, M. J., Threlfall, J., Seay, K. D., Lewis, E. M., & Kohl, P. L. (2013). Recruiting fathers to parenting programs: Advice from dads and fatherhood program providers. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(10), 1734-1741. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.07.004
Travaline, J. M., Ruchinskas, R., & D’Alonzo, G. E. (2005). Patient-physician communication: Why and how. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 105(1), 13-18.
Trivedi, D., Bunn, F., Graham, M., & Wentz, R. (2007). Evidence from the systematic reviews. In P. Baker, K. Guthrie, C. Hutchinson, R. Kane, & K. Wellings (Eds.), Teenage pregnancy and rep health (pp. 275-291). London: Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Press.
Trivedi, D., Brooks, F., Bunn, F., & Graham, M. (2009). Early fatherhood: A mapping of the evidence base relating to pregnancy prevention and parenting support. Health Education Research, 24(6), 999-1028. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyp025
Tully, L. A., Collins, L. A., Piotrowska, P. J., Mairet, K. S., Hawes, D. J., Moul, C., … Dadds, M. R. (2018). Examining practitioner competencies, organizational support and barriers to engaging fathers in parenting interventions. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49(1), 109-122. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-017-0733-0
Xie, H., Cairns, B. D, & Cairns, R. B. (2001). Predicting teen motherhood and teen fatherhood: Individual characteristics and peer affiliations. Social Development, 10(4), 488-511. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00177
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).