Organizational Identification: Perspectives of Dispersed Social Workers
Keywords:Dispersed social work, organizational identification, new communication technology
Human service organizations are often challenged to become more efficient while maintaining the quality of their services. As a result, more organizations have restructured, adopting the practice of dispersed work, which allows employees more freedom and flexibility to meet organizational goals outside of the traditional workplace. While dispersed work allows social workers to engage in work activities beyond the traditional office environment, it may also impact their sense of belonging to the organization. Eleven dispersed social workers were interviewed to understand how interaction via new communication technology impacts organizational identification. Overall themes gleaned from this study suggest that although dispersed social workers perceive themselves as having more autonomy and flexibility, they also can feel socially isolated and disconnected from their peers and supervisors, which may negatively impact organizational identification. Despite the enhanced efficiency that technology can bring, human service organizations must strive to understand the unintended consequences of a dispersed workforce.
Allen, R., Lambert, E., Pasupileti, S., Cluse, T., and Ventura, L. (2004). The impact of job characteristics on social and human service workers. Social Work and Society. 2(2), 173- 188.
Allen & Vakalahi (2013). My Team Members Are Everywhere! A Critical Analysis of the Emerging Literature on Dispersed Teams. Administration in Social Work, 37:5, 486-493.
Ashforth, B., Harrison, S., & Corley, K. (2008). Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34, 325-374.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20-39.
Baker, J. (1993). Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 408-437.
Barker, J., & Tompkins, P. K. (1994). Identification in the self-managing organization. Human Communication Research, 21, 223-240.
Boell, S. K., Campbell, J., Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., & Cheng, J. E. (2013). The
Transformative Nature of Telework: A Review of the Literature.
Caspi, J. & Reid, W.J. (2002). Educational Supervision in Social Work: A task centered model for field instruction and staff development. New York: Columbia University Press.
Cheney, G. (1983). On the various and changing meanings of organizational membership: A field study of organizational identification. Communication Monographs, 50, 342-362.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Dukerich, J. M., Golden, B. R., & Shortell, S. M. (2002). Beauty in the eye of the beholder: The
impact of organizational identification, identity, and image on the cooperative behaviors of physicians. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 507–533.
Dukerich, J., Kramer, R., & McLean Parks, J. (1998). The dark side of organizational identification. In D. A. Whetten & P. C. Godfrey (Eds.), Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations (pp. 245-256). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dutton, J., Dukerich, J., & Harquail, C. (1994). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 239-263.
Edwards, M. (2005). Organizational identification: A conceptual and operational review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7, 207-230.
Goodman, P. S. (2000). Missing organizational linkages: Tools for cross-level research. Sage.
Kadushin, A., & Harkness, D. (2002). Supervision in social work (4th ed). New York: Columbia University Press.
Landsman, M.J. (2008). Pathways to organizational commitment. Administration in Social Work, 32(2), 105-132
Mael, F. A., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma matter: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 103-123.
Mann, S., & Holdsworth, L. (2003). The psychological impact of teleworking: Stress, emotions and health. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(3), 196-211.
Moustakas, C. E. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nilles, J. M. (1975). Telecommunications and organizational decentralization. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 23, 1142-1147.
Parker, R., & Haridakis, P. (2008). Development of an organizational identification scale: Integrating cognitive and communicative conceptualizations. Journal of Communication Studies, 1(3/4), 105-126.
Pearce, C.L., Yoo, Y. and Alavi, M. (2004), ªLeadership, social work and virtual teams: The
relative influence of vertical vs shared leadership in the nonprofit sector, in Riggio, R.E.
and Smith-Orr, S. (Eds), Improving Leadership in Nonprofit Organizations, Jossey-Bass,
San Francisco, CA.
Pratt, M. (1998). To be or not to be? Central questions in organizational identification. In D. A. Whetten & P. C. Godfrey (Eds.), Identity in organizations (pp. 171-207). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Pratt, M. (2000). The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among Amway distributors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 456-493.
Ravasi, D. and van Rekom, J. (2003). Key Issues in Organizational Identity and Identification Theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 6 (2)118-132.
Saldana, J. (2012). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. No. 14. Sage.
Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research. New York, NY: Teachers College
Schadler, T. (2009). US Telecommuting Forecast, 2009 to 2016. Forrester Research Inc. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.forrester.com/rb/Research/us_telecommuting_forecast_2009_to_2016
Schulman, L. (1993). Interactional supervision. Washington: NASW Press.
Smith, B.D. (2005). Job retention in child welfare: Effects of perceived organizational supports, supervisor support and intrinsic job value. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 153-169.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of social conflict. In W. Austein & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson Hall.
Thatcher, S. M., & Zhu, X. (2006). Changing identities in a changing workplace: Identification, identity enactment, self-verification, and telecommuting. Academy of Management Review, 31, 1076-1088.
Tompkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1985). Communication and unobtrusive control in contemporary organizations. In R. McPhee & P. K. Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions (pp. 179-210). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tsui, M. (2005). Social work supervision: Context and concepts, Sage: London.
van Knippenberg, D., & Sleebos, E. (2006). Organizational identification vs. organizational commitment: Self-definition, social exchange, and job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 571-584.
Wiesenfeld, B. M., Raghuram, S., & Garud, R. (2001). Organizational identification among virtual workers: The role of need for affiliation and perceived work-based social support. Journal of Management, 27(2), 213-229.